Solar Panel Installation

How Do Solar Panels Work? Harnessing the Power of the Sun

Solar panels are ingenious devices that convert sunlight into usable electricity. They work through a process called the photovoltaic effect. Let’s take a closer look at how solar panels work and the science behind this remarkable technology.

The Science Behind Solar Panels

Solar panels are made up of individual solar cells, also known as photovoltaic (PV) cells. These cells are typically made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. When sunlight hits the solar panel, it excites the electrons in the semiconductor material, creating an electric current.

The semiconductor material in the solar cell consists of two layers: the P-type layer and the N-type layer. The P-type layer contains positively charged particles (holes), while the N-type layer contains negatively charged particles (electrons). When sunlight interacts with the solar cell, it knocks electrons loose from their atoms in the semiconductor material.

The electric field created by the junction between the P-type and N-type layers causes the loose electrons to flow in one direction, creating an electric current. This is the basic principle of how solar panels generate electricity.

Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC)

The electricity produced by solar panels is in the form of direct current (DC), which is the same type of electricity that batteries provide. However, most household appliances and the electrical grid operate on alternating current (AC). To make the solar energy usable for these devices, an inverter is used to convert the DC electricity into AC electricity.

Net Metering and Grid Connection

When your solar panels generate more electricity than your home consumes, the excess energy can be fed back into the electrical grid. This is known as net metering. In this setup, your electricity metre can spin backward, effectively earning you credits for the surplus energy you produce.

During times when your solar panels are not generating enough electricity (such as at night), you can draw electricity from the grid. This way, you can have a continuous supply of electricity even when solar energy is not available.

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For more information on solar PV systems, visit LSB Renewable Energy’s solar PV systems page.


Solar panels harness the power of the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. When sunlight hits the solar cells, it excites the electrons and creates an electric current. This direct current (DC) electricity is then converted into alternating current (AC) using an inverter. By connecting to the electrical grid, you can offset your energy consumption and contribute to a greener and more sustainable future.


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